An Overview of Psychic Trauma
and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD)
Step 4

4. What are the immediate effects of single-instance trauma?

Emotional

Shock, including numbed emotions, questioning of perceptions,
memory disturbances

Denial, which helps reduce terror, helplessness, and fear of
dying or being abandoned to manageable levels

Confusion and disorientation

Numbness

Panic

Weeping

Extreme anxiety and insecurity

Inflexibility

Dissociation, feelings of unreality

Cognitive

Disbelief, another protective device

Disorientation and confusion

Difficulty thinking and concentrating

Unwanted thoughts traumatic memories may intrude on everyday
living and in dreams, leaving you feeling out of control.

Perceptual problems

The world may seem unsafe, unsteady, unpredictable, and unfair

Traumatic memories intense, clear, vivid images

Forgetfulness

Hyperarousal

Trouble sleeping

Trouble concentrating

Heightened vigilance

Easily startling

Being wary

Sudden tears or anger or panic

Increased alertness and anxiety

Body/Physical

Gastrointestinal symptoms

Headaches

Allergy symptoms

Menstrual problems

The inevitable review

Trauma survivors spend a lot of time thinking about what
they could have done differently. Truth is, they couldn't
have done it differently the body takes over. And the important
thing is not what you did it's that you survived.



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